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Original Research Article
ANTIMICROBIAL MOUTH RINSES - ARE THEY POTENT AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS?Author Name: Mithun Pai BH , Mahesh Kumar M. , Amit V. Mahuli , Prashanth GM , Chandu GN
Abstract: Background: There has been an increase in Candida infections over the period of several decades. This is probably because of the increasing number of elderly and seriously ill patients, immuno suppressive therapies, as well as the increased use of antibiotics and more invasive therapeutic medical procedures. The study was conducted with an objective of determining the antifungal efficacy of five mouth rinses on Candida albicans in vitro.
Methods: The study is an experimental in-vitro study conducted to evaluate antifungal efficacy of five mouthrinses against Candida albicans. A three pronged objective included screening the mouthwashes for antifungal properties, to check the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and to evaluate the fungicidal efficacy of the mouth rinses on Candida albicans, using disc diffusion, broth macro dilution and modified Bernstein method was done respectively. The mean and standard deviation of the diameter of inhibition zone was calculated. The data analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post hoc test for pair wise comparison.
Results: The study showed that all the mouth rinses showed zones of inhibition against Candida albicans. Zones of inhibition for Chlorhexidine were highest and were significantly greater. All the mouth washes used in the present study showed kill times that were lesser than thirty seconds.
Conclusion: The findings of the study demonstrate that mouth rinses have sufficient antifungal properties that might represent appropriate alternative to conventional antifungal drugs in the management of Candida albicans.
Keywords: antimicrobial Mouth rinse, Candida albicans, antifungal activity
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF OZONATED WATER AND CHLORHEXIDINE MOUTH RINSE ON PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS: AN IN VITRO STUDYAuthor Name: Mathew MJ , Jithesh Jain , Peter Simon Sequeira , Vipin Jain K , Sudeep CB , Reshmi JK
Abstract: Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic bacterium that resides within the biofilm community in the subgingival crevice of the oral cavity and is regarded as a major causative agent in the initiation and progression of severe forms of this disease. The established oral antiseptics for periodontal treatment include Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX, 0.2-2%). Regarding side-effects, it is known that Chlorhexidine may cause mucosal desquamation, impaired wound healing and fibroblast attachment to the tooth surfaces, tooth staining and altered taste sensation. The objective of this in-vitro study was to assess the efficacy of ozonated water and0.2% Chlorhexidine mouth rinse on Porphyromonas gingivals..
Methods: The bacterial strains Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC 33277) were incubated in trypticasein-soy agar supplemented with 5% lamb blood. 100 ml of ozonated water and 0.2% chlorhexidine was poured in the respective well and the plates were incubated at 370 for 24 hrs. The zone of inhibition was measured at 1min and 24 hrs . Independent samples t test was used and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: After 1 min the effect of ozone on P.gingivalis was superior when compared to chlorhexidine.
Conclusion: Ozonated water significantly inhibits the growth of P.gingivalis in-vitro.
Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Ozone, Bacteria.
ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF B.Ed STUDENTS IN DAVANGERE CITY, INDIA.Author Name: Rama Sharma, Mahesh Hiregoudar, Prashant GM, Naveen Kumar PG, Chandu GN
Abstract: Background: To assess the effect and
impact of oral health on quality of life among B.Ed students of Davangere city,
Methods: A questionnaire study, using OHQoL-UK (W) questionnaire, which takes into consideration both ‘effect’ and ‘impact’ of oral health on life quality, incorporating an individualized weighting system. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of 269 B.Ed students, of Davangere city, India. Gender variations on the responses of their effect and impact on OHRQoL was analyzed using Chi- square test.
Results: The overall response rate was 89.67%. Of the total students 39.8% (n=107) were males and 60.2% (n=162) were females. 63.17% believed that their oral health enhanced their QoL, 30.34% believed that their oral health had no effect on their QoL and 6.48% believed that their oral health reduced their QoL. Most frequently (29.78%) the respondents have stated that the various aspects of oral health have moderate impact on their quality of life. Response related to breath odour was only found to be statistically significant between the genders.
Conclusion: To conclude, the study shows that the B.Ed students of Davangere city, India perceive oral health as affecting their QoL and also has an impact on QoL in a variety of physical, social and psychological ways.
Keywords: Oral health, B.Ed students, Quality of Life
PERIODONTAL STATUS AND ITS RELATION TO BODY MASS INDEX AMONG UPPER PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS IN DAVANGERE CITY, INDIAAuthor Name: Shwetha R, Subramaniam R, Sakeenabi B, Prashant GM, Chandu GN
Abstract: Background: Periodontitis is among the
most common chronic disorders affecting the world population. Over the past few decades, obesity has also become a
significant worldwide health problem. Being overweight and obese has been associated
with an increased risk for periodontal disease. It has been suggested that obesity
is second only to smoking as the strongest risk factor for inflammatory
periodontal tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine body
mass index, periodontal status and their relation,
among upper primary and secondary school physical education teachers in
Davangere city, India.
Methodology: A total of 109 physical education instructors from 87 upper primary and secondary schools were included in the study. Periodontal status was recorded using Community Periodontal index (CPI). Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio of the subject’s body weight (in kg) to the square of their height (in meters).
Results: Of the 109 subjects examined, only 3.7% had healthy periodontal tissues. About 27.5% of the subjects had bleeding only. Presence of calculus was noted in 68.8% of the subjects. 74.3% of the subjects had periodontal pockets. Majority of the respondents had normal body mass index. Logistic regression analysis done to determine the association between BMI and periodontal status, revealed that there is statistically significant association between BMI and periodontal status.
Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontitis is high among the upper primary and secondary school physical education teachers in Davangere city. BMI was significantly associated with periodontal status indicating that a higher body mass index could be a potential risk factor for periodontitis.
Keywords: Community Periodontal Index, Body Mass Index, physical education teachers, periodontitis.
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTICES TOWARDS DROPLET AND AIR-BORNE ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS AMONG DENTAL HEALTHCARE PERSONNEL IN A DENTAL COLLEGE IN KOTHAMANGALAM: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDYAuthor Name: Sanjeev R, Suneesh Kuruvilla, Subramaniam R
Abstract: Background: For long, infection control has been one of the major
concerns of the dental community. Dentists use high-energy equipment, such as
drills and scalers, in the presence of bodily fluids such as blood and saliva,
and dental plaque. This combination has been shown to generate aerosols of oral
micro-organisms, and blood. If infective aerosols persist there may be some
danger of exposure in the waiting area and for subsequent patients. With this
background, the study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and
practice towards droplet and air-borne isolation precautions among dental
healthcare personnel in a dental college in Kothamangalam, Kerala.
Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey containing 23 questions to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice on airborne infections isolation precautions. The samples were the teaching faculty members and students of a dental college in Kothamangalam, Kerala. Results were expressed as a number and percentage of respondents for each question and Chi-square test was performed for inferential statistical analysis.
Results: The mean knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 3.94±1.029, 5.17±0.862, 3.62±1.596 respectively with maximum scores of 8, 6 and 7. Significant differences existed in practice scores among faculty and students.
Conclusion: The study revealed that although the attitude regarding droplet and airborne isolation precautions among faculty members and students of the institution was high, knowledge and practice remained low.
Keywords: airborne infections, isolation precautions, droplet, aerosol
ORAL CANCER - A JOURNEY TO UNRAVEL THE PASTAuthor Name: Jithin Jose, Niveditha Baiju , Pramod Mathews, Skariah K.S
Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumour in the oral and maxillofacial region. It is the sixth most common malignancy and is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. OSCC accounts for 95% of malignant lesions of the mouth and is a major problem worldwide. The relative prevalence of oral SCC is 3–5% of all cancer. The purpose of this article is an attempt to review a brief frame work about epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, staging and grading of Oral cancer.
Keywords: oral cancer, staging, grading
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE IN DENTISTRY: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE.Author Name: Nebu Philip, Bharat Suneja, Reeba Mary Issac
Abstract: Calcium hydroxide is one of the most widely used medicaments in dentistry. This article aims to review the material based on its history, properties, mode of action, clinical use of its different formulations, significance of the vehicles used in Ca(OH)2 pastes, and the role Ca(OH)2 plays in various clinical procedures. The review of literature enabled us to conclude that its application chiefly related to its ability to stimulate dentin bridge formation and its antimicrobial properties. The review will also enable clinicians to make informed judgements about which formulations of calcium hydroxide should be used for specific clinical procedures.
Keywords: calcium hydroxide, mode of action, clinical applications
SCOPE OF PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN THE FIELD OF PERIODONTICS: A REVIEWAuthor Name: Mohammed Shereef, Noorudeen AM, Mathew T Joy
Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a form of phototherapy using nontoxic light-sensitive compounds that are exposed selectively to light, whereupon they become toxic to targeted malignant and other diseased cells. It involves the use of low power lasers with appropriate wavelength to kill micro organisms treated with a photosensitizer drug. PDT could be a useful adjunct to mechanical as well as antibiotics in eliminating periopathogenic bacteria. Applications of photodynamic therapy in dentistry are growing rapidly for the treatment of oral cancer, bacterial and fungal infections and photodynamic diagnosis of malignant transformation of oral lesions, and are recognized as a treatment strategy which is both minimally invasive and minimally toxic.
Keywords: photodynamic therapy, photosensitizers, gingivitis, periodontits, peri-implantitis, Flap surgery, microbial resistance, systemic antibiotics
DIGITAL IMPRESSIONSAuthor Name: Meenu Merry C Paul, Sanu Tom Abraham, Pius AV, Shibu George
Abstract: The quest for innovations and improvisations in all the areas of restorative dentistry includes impression materials as well. Precision and accuracy of master impressions are critical to the overall excellence and marginal fit of definitive fixed restorations &implants. In the present scenario, conventional (traditional) techniques are being replaced by the newer, precise and accurate digital impressions. Chairside digital impression (CAD/CAM) systems create accurate and precise laboratory models and restorations, involving less chairside time, and achieve fine-tuned esthetics. This article gives an insight into the latest impression materials/techniques used to fabricate a fixed partial denture or implant prosthesis.
Keywords: CAD-CAM, Digital Impression
WOMEN'S ORAL HEALTH: AN OVERVIEWAuthor Name: Amit V Mahuli1, Simpy Mittal, Prashanth GM, Chandu GN, Saurabh Kakade
Abstract: Women’s oral health demands special attention at different times during their lifespan. In this present article the main oral health needs and their dental management have been highlighted. Women’s oral health needs during, puberty, menses, oral contraceptive taking phase, pregnancy & post-menopausal period have been explained. In women, certain diseases or conditions are unique, more prevalent, more serious, or have different manifestations or different outcomes than in men. This dimorphism is influenced greatly by the hormonal fluctuations that women experience and is reflected in the health of their oral tissues. Few of the social factors affecting oral health of the Indian women are also been discussed. Education and poor socio-economic status are the major barriers in women’s oral health in India. There are gender differences in the culture, practice, attitudes and disease patterns in India, there are acute need of studies related to gender differences of oral diseases and behavior of Indian women towards oral hygiene.
Keywords: Women’s oral health, temporomandibular joint disorders, Sjogren’s syndrome.
BLEACHING, THE BIOLOGIC ASPECTS – A REVIEWAuthor Name: Romel Joseph, Dinesh Kamath, Robin James, Meera Gopalakrishnan
Abstract: Present tooth-bleaching techniques are based upon hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient. It is applied directly, or produced in a chemical reaction from sodium perborate or carbamide peroxide. Among the successfully bleached teeth 10 to 40% require repeated bleaching. Cervical root resorption is a possible consequence of internal bleaching and is more frequently observed in teeth treated with the thermo-catalytic procedure. Tooth sensitivity is a common side-effect of external tooth bleaching. A selective use of tooth bleaching based on high ethical standards and professional judgement is preferred to reduce complications. The purpose of this paper was to critically evaluate the biologic aspects of tooth bleaching.
Keywords: Toxicity, esthetics, bleaching.
INTRACANAL MEDICAMENTS - REVISITEDAuthor Name: Prasanth Dhanapal, Sheena B Prasanth
Abstract: The main objective of endodontic treatment of pulpless necrotic teeth is removal of maximum possible bacteria and their byproducts from the root canal system and then finally completely seal the disinfected root canals in three dimensions. In treatment of infected root canals the number of appointments needed to achieve disinfection of the root canal system is controversial. The concept of interappointment dressing in multiple visit endodontic therapy is well documented in endodontic literature. Many materials have been suggested for use as interappointment dressing. Research on endodontic microbiology and biofilms have demystified few earlier concepts and opened up new ideas with regard to interappointment dressing material and the method of application. This literature review is an attempt to rationalise the use of interappointment dressing based on scientific evidence.
Keywords: Intracanal medicaments, Interappointment dressing, Calcium hydroxide, Antibiotic Pastes
PROSTHETIC REHABILITATION OF AN ORBITAL DEFECT: A CASE REPORTAuthor Name: Sanju John Jolly, Pius AV, Seema George, Cinil Mathew
Abstract: Any damage or disfigurement to the face can lead to psychological and social problem. Trauma to the eye is a severe handicap to a patient because the most important sensory organ of communication is lost. Restoring these congenital as well as acquired defects is a very demanding task. When appropriately made it is the finest service that can be rendered to a patient who feels socially secluded because of facial deficiency. A sequence of steps for construction of custom-made ocular prosthesis is outlined.
Keywords: Maxillofacial prosthesis, Orbital defect, Custom-made ocular prosthesis, Acrylic resin, Iris
ENDODONTIC STABILIZATION USING IMPLANTS WITH AN IMPROVED DESIGN - A REPORT OF 2 CASESAuthor Name: Meera Gopalakrishnan, Prasanth PS, Raison Sujai, Mohan B
Abstract: Endodontic endosseous implants are metallic extensions of the tooth root which extends beyond the root apex and is inserted into a prepared channel in the bone. They have been used in the past for stabilization of teeth with compromised crown root ratio to improve their prognosis. The inability of these implants to obtain an adequate coronal seal and lack of osseointegration have been cited as the cause of their varying amount of success. The improvement of the implant design and the material used for its fabrication is believed to overcome these drawbacks. This article reports two cases in which endodontic implants with a new design and a predictable technique are used to stabilize teeth with compromised crown root ratio.
Keywords: Endodontic endosseous implants, osseointegration, endodontic stabilization
VIRTUAL MICROSCOPY - TECHNOLOGY OF THE NEW MILLENIUMAuthor Name: Dr. Mithilesh Chandra